By Alan Green, The Center for Public Integrity
An unlimited and formerly undisclosed underground financial system exists within the usa. the goods acquired and offered: animals. In Animal Underworld, veteran investigative journalist Alan eco-friendly exposes the sleazy, occasionally unlawful internet of these who alternate in infrequent and unique creatures. eco-friendly and the guts for Public Integrity show which American zoos and leisure parks unload their "surplus" animals at the middlemen adept at secretly redirecting them into the non-public puppy exchange. We're taken to exotic-animal auctions, the place the nameless excessive bidders are frequently infamous purchasers, hunting-ranch owners, and profit-minded charlatans masquerading as conservationists. We stopover at a few of the nation's so much prestigious universities and study laboratories, whose diseased monkeys are "laundered" via this similar community of breeders and buyers till they eventually succeed in the houses of unsuspecting puppy proprietors. And we meet the boys and ladies who make their residing via skirting via loopholes within the legislations, or by way of ignoring the legislation altogether. For an individual who cares approximately animals; for puppy proprietors, zoo-goers, natural world conservationists, and animal welfare advocates, Animal Underworld is gripping, surprising analyzing.
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Extra resources for Animal Underworld: Inside America's Black Market for Rare and Exotic Species
If the stressor continues, the response proceeds to the third series of events, which is the chronic stress response, and it is this series of events that can have serious consequences for the animal. 1. Behavioural and physical adaptation during acute stress (modiﬁed from Kaltas and Chrousos, 2007). Behavioural adaptation: adaptive redirection of behaviour Physical adaptation: adaptive redirection of energy Increased arousal and alertness Oxygen and nutrients to the central nervous system and stressed body sites Altered cardiovascular tone and increased blood pressure and heart rate Increased respiratory rate Increased glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis Inhibition of growth and reproduction Containment of the inﬂammatory/immune response Increased cognition, vigilance and focused attention Heightened analgesia Euphoria (highly pleasant mood) or dysphoria (highly unpleasant mood) Increased temperature Suppression of appetite and feeding behaviour 34 Chapter 2 impaired immunity and reduced reproductive performance.
Broom’s (1986) deﬁnition is similar to the one recently endorsed by the 172 member countries of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), which has an animal welfare mandate that covers livestock (OIE, 2008): Animal welfare means how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if (as indicated by scientiﬁc evidence) it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear, and distress.
A predominant feature of a chronic activation of the HPA axis is increased basal secretion of corticosteroids with a loss in diurnal regulation of the axis (Harbuz and Lightman, 1992). It is this sustained elevation in free corticosteroids, together with changes in other hormones, cardiovascular function, metabolism and the immune system, that has broad, long-lasting effects on the body, such as decreased metabolic efﬁciency, impaired immunity and reduced reproductive performance. In other words, increased basal secretion of corticosteroids has signiﬁcant ﬁtness consequences for the animal, and it is these biological and ﬁtness effects that reﬂect both the magnitude of the stress response and the welfare implications.