By Jean Audouze, Sylvie Vauclair (auth.)
TO NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS The Formation and the Evolution of topic within the Universe JEAN AUDOUZE lnstitut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France and SYLVIE VA UCLAI R DAPHE, Ohservatoire de Meudon, France and lnstitut d'Astrophysique, Paris D, REIDEL PUBLISHING corporation DORDRECHT: HOLLAND/BOSTON: U. S. A. LONDON: ENGLAND Library of Congre~ Cataloging in book facts Audouzc. Jean An creation to nuclear astrophysics. (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs; v. 18) En!. and up-to-date translation of L'Astrophysique nuclt\aire. contains bibliographies and index. \. Nuclear astrophysics. I. Vauclair, Sylvie, joint writer. II. name. III. sequence. QB464. A9313 1979 523. 01'9'7 79-20752 ISBN-13: 978-90-277-1053-6 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-9477-5 DO I: 10. 1007/978-94-009-9477-5 released through D. Reidel Publishing corporation, P. O. field 17. Dordrecht, Holland bought and allotted within the U. S. A. , Canada, and Mexico through D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Inc. Lincoln development. a hundred and sixty previous Derby highway, Hingham, Mass. 02043, U. S. A. All Rights Reserved Copyright © 1980 by way of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Dordrecht, Holland Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st version 1980 No a part of the cloth safe by way of this copyright detect should be reproduced or used in any shape or in anyway, digital or mechanical, together with photocopying, recording or through any informational garage and retrieval procedure, with out written permission from the copyright proprietor desk OF CONTENTS IX FOREWORD creation xi XXI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS bankruptcy I / THE OBSERVATIONAL foundation OF NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS 1. 1. the significance of the 4 basic Interactions 1 1. 2.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics: The Formation and the Evolution of Matter in the Universe
8. The Hubble classification of galaxies. ~ .. 6 Some characteristics of the different types of galaxies in the Hubble classification. I M represents the fraction of the total mass in the gaseous form. 3 regions to the central regions. Such objects are relatively massive (2: 10 12 M d, (there are however exceptions like dwarf ellipticals). 6). 9b). Our own Galaxy is typical of this group. 1. These galaxies are relatively more luminous and bluer than the elliptical galaxies (in comparison with their masses).
The interstellar medium contains magnetic fields of 10- 5 to 10- 6 G and is traversed by hydromagnetic waves which govern the physics of this medium. The interstellar medium, although its density is very low, appears to be a very complex medium. A tremendous effort is made by astronomers and astrophysicists to understand this complexity. This shows how many different fields of physics have to be used in astrophysics to understand the Universe: atomic physics, solid state physics, plasma physics, inorganic and organic chemistry, all of them are important in the study of such a complex medium.
This well known diagram, now called the HR diagram from the initials of its authors, constitutes one of the most powerful tools of modern astrophysics. 5). Some others, on the top right, luminous and 'cold' (3000 to 4000 K) are the red giants, while the few hot ones (T > 104 K) not very luminous, down left, are the white dwarfs. From the well known 'blackbody' relation, one can easily deduce that the stellar radius increases from the lower left towards the top right, according to the relation: L= 4nR2(J'T!