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By Bill Kirk

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As can be seen in the diagram, the climate of lowland Calabozo shows a dry winter period, from November to April, then a very wet summer, from May to October. Although rainfall varies considerably, the temperature changes little throughout the year, and this is characteristic of the Tropics. In the higher latitudes, of course, seasonal change in temperature is much more marked and the curve may even fall below the base line of freezing point during certain months. Climate diagrams can be modified to show months in which there is a very real possibility of frost, which is usually displayed by a bar Janu 12 Mean monthly rainfall >4 inches (10 cm) Relatively humid season Relatively dry season © Infobase Publishing A climate diagram provides a visual summary of the main climatic features of a site.

The horizontal axis represents the months of the year, which are arranged to retain the summer months in the center. For Southern Hemisphere sites, therefore, the scale runs from July to June. running along the abscissa covering those months. In the Tropics this is only likely on high mountains or deep within continental regions, far from the winter warming effect of the oceans. Climate and Tropical Forests F 13 these conditions are not met, but the forest that develops is unlikely to be true evergreen rain forest; it is more likely to consist of mixed evergreen and deciduous forest, or, in conditions of more extreme drought, fully deciduous forest or savanna woodland.

Visible light X-rays ultraviolet rays The British physicist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) first demonstrated that the light perceived by human eyes consists of a wide spectrum of different wavelengths of energy. He passed light through a glass prism and split the “white” light into a series of different colors. Another British scientist, James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879), showed that the light seen by the human eye is only a very small band in a much wider spectrum of radiant energy, called the electromagnetic spectrum (see illustration).

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