Download Alexander A. Friedmann: The man who made the Universe expand by Eduard A. Tropp, Viktor Ya. Frenkel, Artur D. Chernin, PDF

By Eduard A. Tropp, Viktor Ya. Frenkel, Artur D. Chernin, Alexander Dron, Michael Burov

Our universe could be defined mathematically via an easy version constructed in 1922 at Petrograd (St. Petersburg) by means of Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925). with no the advantage of observational facts, Friedmann expected that the complete universe may extend and evolve with time. This awesome prediction used to be proven seven years later by means of Edwin Hubble. Its originator, regrettably did not reside to appreciate this triumph. This shiny biography of an excellent scientist units his lifestyles and paintings opposed to a large backdrop of the background of cosmological reviews and its significant avid gamers, akin to Einstein and others. The ebook is a window on Friedmann's tuition and college years, army carrier, and educating and study in the course of a seminal interval of Soviet background. The authors comprise distinctive archival fabric, comparable to Friedmann's letters from the Russian entrance, in addition to modern documents and recollections of co-workers. there's a specific remedy of his paintings in theoretical cosmology (1922-1924), set within the context of the association of Soviet technological know-how on the time.

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69455B93-05D1-4CCB-A51C-CA433FAAEDF5 ‘The big political doings of our time are so disheartening that in our generation one feels quite alone. ’ 29 Introduction | Despite his involvement in politics and other areas, Einstein remained first and foremost a scientist. He spent his later life striving towards a unifying theory of everything, an explanation of the universe that would bind together general relativity, the behaviour of atoms and gravity. He battled with the champions of opposing theories — Niels Bohr, in particular — until the end of his life, and he continued working on his equations until his very last days.

69455B93-05D1-4CCB-A51C-CA433FAAEDF5 ‘The non-mathematician is seized by a mysterious shuddering when he hears of ‘four-dimensional’ things, by a feeling not unlike that awakened by thoughts of the occult. ’ 58 | Space-time The possibility of treating time as a fourth dimension, comparable with the three dimensions of physical space, had been suggested before Einstein’s time. G. Wells had shown how a specific time could be associated with coordinates in the other three dimensions in order to locate an event uniquely in time and space, but he had not backed up the idea with the necessary mathematics.

Physics could go no further without it. ’ 69455B93-05D1-4CCB-A51C-CA433FAAEDF5 Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell 43 Science | Light waves T HE special nature of light had long been recognized by scientists — quite how special would be revealed by Einstein. In 1678, the Dutch mathematician Christiaan Huygens suggested something similar to wave theory in order to explain the way in which light propagates. ’ [Christiaan Huygens] Nearly 200 years later, James Clerk Maxwell used the theory of electromagnetism to explain how light and heat act as waves.

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