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By Charles Singer et al (eds)

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A s a result, the production o f their country rose to 32 600 tons in 1720 and to 51 000 tons in 1739. Similar expansion occurred in 30 III. TH E IR O N IN D U S T R Y T h e main features o f sixteenth- and seventeenth-century metallurgy are its mechanization and its spread. T h e works o f Agricola and Biringuccio portray and describe improved mining-shafts, hoists and ventilators, stamp-mills, crushing-, jigging-, sieving- and roasting-apparatus all driven by water-power. Certainly, metallurgy profited much from the introduction o f the water-wheel as a prime mover, while the rising capitalism o f western Europe found the money to build the large apparatus that the engineers designed.

A few years later (1774) Dem achy published the first systematic account o f the use o f the hydrometer for testing alcohol, acids, and commercial fluids generally. M any other new types o f hydrometer were proposed later. T h e testing o f foodstuffs became more effective with the rise o f analytical chemistry after 1790. In 1820 Friedrich Accum (1769-1838) published his ‘Adulteration o f Food and Culinary Poisons’, the pioneer treatise on ± e subject. D urin g these three centuries no major invention affected the preservation o f food.

T h e furnace was like a baker’s oven with a fire-box 2 ft wide, heating coffers that contained over half a ton o f iron in bars up to 5 ft long. Cementation was done with charcoal without admixture, and was continued for between three and seven days and nights. Though crucible-cast steel did not become important in Europe until Hunts­ man developed it commercially in 1740, it had been produced in India under the name o f wootz,^ and was known to at least two seventeenth-century English writers.

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